- Total Protein: Proteins are important building blocks of all cells and tissues. They form the structural part of most organs, regulate body functions (enzymes and hormones), and are essential for body growth, development, and health. The majority of total protein in blood is from two major classes – albumin and globulin.
- Albumin: Albumin prevents fluid from leaking out of blood vessels and transports hormones, vitamins, and other substances around the body. Fasting, protein-deficient diets, liver disease, and intestinal malabsorption syndromes can cause a decrease in albumin synthesis.
- Globulin: Globulins are important components of the immune system. Increased immunoglobulins are the usual cause of elevated globulin, but other protein increases can also occur in certain pathologic states. Malnutrition, immune deficiency, and kidney disease can reduce globulin levels due to protein loss through the kidney.
- Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a degradation product formed during the normal and abnormal destruction of red blood cells. Blockages in the bile ducts of the liver and gallbladder can cause an increase in bilirubin, as well as other liver diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer.
- Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP): Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in several different tissues, which helps break down proteins. ALP levels at least 4-fold higher than normal often occur in cholestatic liver disease, bile duct obstruction, infiltrative liver disease, severe alcoholic hepatitis, and drug-induced liver injury.
- Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT): Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is predominantly present in liver, kidney, and pancreatic cells. Elevated GGT (5-30 times normal) occurs in cases of obstructive jaundice and metastatic neoplasms, usually at an earlier stage than other liver enzymes.
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme involved in amino acid metabolism. Markedly high ALT levels in serum (at least 10-fold higher than normal) occur in various diseases that affect the liver, including hepatitis, mononucleosis, and cirrhosis.